What we Measure

Instruments

SAIL will bring nearly four dozen instruments to advance the campaign's research. This is a preliminary list of those instruments.

What it Measures: Humidity, temperature and winds
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point Obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 1 second
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Secondary surface meteorology conditions are needed for constraining sublimation rates and ambient atmospheric conditions for aerosols.
 

Instrument Mentor: Jenni Kyrouac (ANL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/doe-sc-arm-tr-184.pdf

What it Measures: Vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Z, limited X,Y
 
Spatial Resolution: 100 m
 
Temporal Resolution: 30 seconds
 
Range: 10 km
 
Rationale: Vertical profiles of temperature and humidity and their horizontal variability (instrument can be programmed to scan up to 45 degrees from zenith) are needed to estimate sublimation tendencies and radiation sensitivity studies.
 

Instrument Mentor: Jonathan Gero (University of Wisconsin)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/aeri_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Carbon Monoxide
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point Obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 1 minute
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Carbon monoxide measurements are needed for determining when observed aerosols may be the result of combustion.
 

Instrument Mentor: Sebastien Biraud (LBNL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/co_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Planetary boundary layer height, cloud base height, vertical visiblity, atmospheric backscatter
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Z
 
Spatial Resolution: 10 m
 
Temporal Resolution: 16 seconds
 
Range: 7.5 km
 
Rationale: Ceilometer data are needed for determining clear-sky and/or aerosol-free conditions.
 

Instrument Mentor: Victor Morris (PNNL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/ceil_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Direct solar irradiance and sky radiance at the Earth’s surface
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point Obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 1 minute
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Aerosol optical depth measurements are needed for constraining aerosol radiative effects.
 

Instrument Mentor: Lynn Ma (BNL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/csphot_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Cloud condensation nuclei
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point Obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 1 second
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Cloud condensation nuclei are needed to characterize relationships between observed cloud and aerosol properties to characterize aerosol/cloud and aerosol/precipitation interactions.
 

Instrument Mentor: Janek Uin (BNL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/ccn_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Sub-micron aerosol particle number concentration
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point Obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 1 second
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Condensation particle observations are needed for measuring fine and ultrafine aerosol particle modes to characterize aerosol sources and aerosol/precipitation interactions.
 

Instrument Mentor: Chonghai Kuang (BNL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/cpc_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Surface precipitating hydrometeor particle size and fall speed
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point Obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 1 minute
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Surface precipitating or entrained hydrometeor particle size and fall speed are needed for validating X-band radar retrievals, especially for snow.
 

Instrument Mentor: Mary Jane Bartholomew (BNL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/disdrometer_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: 3-D radial wind velocities
 
Dimensions of Measurement: X,Y,Z
 
Spatial Resolution: 30 m
 
Temporal Resolution: 30 seconds
 
Range: 10 km
 
Rationale: Spatially-distributed wind measurements are needed for determining snow erosion/deposition, advective fluxes, and contextualizing latent/sensible heat fluxes.
 

Instrument Mentor: Rob Newson (PNNL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/dl_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Turbulent fluxes of momentum, latent and sensible heat
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point Obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 30 minutes
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Eddy covariance measurements are needed for determining turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat which are needed for characterizing the surface energy balance.
 

Instrument Mentor: Ryan Sullivan (ANL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/ecor_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Shortwave and Longwave Broadband Radiative Flux
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point Obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 1 minute
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Surface shortwave and longwave radiation components are needed for understanding the surface energy balance and its controls.
 

Instrument Mentor: Manajit Sengupta (NREL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/sirs_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Vertical profiles of optical depth, backscatter cross-section, depolarization, and backscatter phase function
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Z
 
Spatial Resolution: 7.5 m
 
Temporal Resolution: 5 seconds
 
Range: 30 km
 
Rationale: These observations are needed to understand the scattering properties of particles including aerosols and blowing snow, including differentiating blown and precipitating snow.
 

Instrument Mentor: Ray Bambha (Sandia)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/hsrl_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Aerosol particle hygroscopicity
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point Obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 10 minutes
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: These observations are needed to characterize aerosol susceptibility to atmospheric water vapor, particularly in bimodal aerosol regimes.
 

Instrument Mentor: Janek Uin (BNL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/htdma_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Equivalent blackbody brightness temperature in field of view (downwelling or upwelling)
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point Obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 3 seconds
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Surface radiative temperature are needed for characterizing surface longwave radiation and emissivity and help characterize the surface energy balance.
 

Instrument Mentor: Victor Morris (PNNL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/irt_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Measure vertically-resolved cloud particle profiles from radar observations of Doppler velocity, reflectivity, and spectral width of Ka band frequencies
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Z
 
Spatial Resolution: 30 m
 
Temporal Resolution: 1 minute
 
Range: 20 km
 
Rationale: Vertical cloud properties are needed for constraining cloud/precipitation microphysics and cloud susceptibility to aerosols.
 

Instrument Mentor: Bradley Isom (PNNL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/kazr_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Aerosol and cloud location and scattering property profiles, hydrometeor phase
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Z
 
Spatial Resolution: 15 m
 
Temporal Resolution: 10 seconds
 
Range: 18 km
 
Rationale: These observations are needed to measure the impact of clouds and aerosols and surface radiation.
 

Instrument Mentor: Paytsar Muradyan (ANL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/mpl_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Total column liquid water in clouds and total column gaseous water vapor, derived from brightness temperature observations at 23.8, 30, and 89 GHz
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point Obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 1 second
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Primary observations on column-water vapor and cloud water are needed to constrain water vapor profiles and cloud radar measurements.
 

Instrument Mentor: Maria Cadeddu (ANL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/mwr3c_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Total column liquid water in clouds and total column gaseous water vapor, derived from brightness temperature observations at 23.8 and 31.4 GHz
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point Obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 1 second
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Secondary observations of column-water vapor and cloud water are needed to constrain water vapor profiles and cloud radar measurements.
 

Instrument Mentor: Maria Cadeddu (ANL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/mwr_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Aerosol optical depth, diffuse and direct radiation, total water vapor derived from radiance at 6 channels from 415 nm to 940 nm
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point Obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 1 minute
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Ambient aerosol amount measurements are needed to constrain aerosol optical depths for understanding their radiative impacts.
 

Instrument Mentor: Gary Hodges (NOAA ESRL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/mfrsr_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Scattering and hemispheric backscatter of aerosols
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point Obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 5 seconds
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: These observations are needed to characterize aerosol light absorption and scattering data from sampling sub- vs. super-micron data with different impactor size cuts.
 

Instrument Mentor: Janek Uin (BNL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/nephelometer_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Surface atmospheric ozone concentration
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point Obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 5 seconds
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Ozone surface concentrations are needed for determining potential sources of transported aerosols.
 

Instrument Mentor: Stephen Springston (BNL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/ozone_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Bulk absorption of surface atmospheric aerosols
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point Obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 1 second
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Aerosol absorption observations are needed to determine when aerosols are dominated by Black Carbon versus other light absorbing species, such as Brown Carbon and dust.
 

Instrument Mentor: Stephen Springston (BNL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/psap_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Vertical wind profiles
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Z
 
Spatial Resolution: 10 m
 
Temporal Resolution: 6 hours
 
Range: 10 km
 
Rationale: Continuous vertical wind profiles are needed in non-precipitating conditions to resolve wind gradients in Boundary Layer and Free Troposphere to help characterize sublimation.
 

Instrument Mentor: Paytsar Muradyan (ANL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/rwp_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Atmospheric profiles of temperature and water vapor above AMF2
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Z
 
Spatial Resolution: 0.1 m
 
Temporal Resolution: 1 hour
 
Range: 6 km
 
Rationale: These observations are needed for determining atmospheric thermodynamic profiles for sublimation, evaporation, and radiation.
 

Instrument Mentor: Donna Holdridge (ANL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/sonde_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Surface atmospheric soot mass
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 60 seconds
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: These data are needed for identifying Black Carbon aerosols, for determining dominant aerosol species, and for identifying when absorbing aerosols are dominated by absorbing dust and Brown Carbon.
 

Instrument Mentor: Arthur Sedlacek (BNL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/doe-sc-arm-tr-169.pdf

What it Measures: Surface downwelling solar and infrared broadband radiation
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 1 minute
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation are needed for validating surface radiative flux measurements and establishing their heterogeneity.
 

Instrument Mentor: Manajit Sengupta (NREL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/sirs_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Surface upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared broadband radiation
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 30 minutes
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: The surface energy and simultaneous soil moisture data are needed to interpret surface sensible and latent heat fluxes.
 

Instrument Mentor: Ryan Sullivan (ANL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/sebs_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, rain-rate
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 1 minute
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Primary surface meteorology conditions are needed for constraining sublimation rates and ambient atmospheric conditions for aerosols.
 

Instrument Mentor: Jenni Kyrouac (ANL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/met_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Horizontal distribution of cloud sky fraction surrounding the AMF2
 
Dimensions of Measurement: X,Y
 
Spatial Resolution: <45 m
 
Temporal Resolution: 30 seconds
 
Range: 6 km
 
Rationale: Spatially-resolved cloud fraction data are needed to characterize the spatial distribution of clouds and determine how their heterogeneity impacts the surface energy balance.
 

Instrument Mentor: Victor Morris (PNNL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/tsi_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Horizontal distribution of cloud sky fraction surrounding the AMF2
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 10 seconds
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Surface aerosol size distribution information for fine particles are needed to characterize aerosol-precipitation interactions.
 

Instrument Mentor: Janek Uin (BNL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/uhsas_handbook.pdf

What it Measures: Surface warm-season precipitation
 
Dimensions of Measurement: Point obs
 
Spatial Resolution: N/A
 
Temporal Resolution: 1 minute
 
Range: N/A
 
Rationale: Surface warm-season precipitation observations are needed to validate X-band scanning radar estimates of precipitation.
 

Instrument Mentor: Mary Jane Bartholomew (BNL)

Instrument Handbook: https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/doe-sc-arm-tr-232.pdf

What it Measures: Precipitation amount and type 
 
Dimensions of Measurement: X,Y,Z
 
Spatial Resolution: 100 m
 
Temporal Resolution: 15 minutes
 
Range: 50 km
 
Rationale: The spatial and temporal distribution of both the amount of precipitation and the type of precipitation that is occurring is needed to investigate the causes of spatial and temporal variability in this quantity.
 

Instrument Mentor: Venkatachalam Chandrasekar (CSU)

Instrument Handbook: http://radarmet.atmos.colostate.edu/casa/